Publications

Publication: Clinical Kidney Journal

Toby J L Humphrey, Glen James, Eric T Wittbrodt, Donna Zarzuela, Thomas F Hiemstra

30 January 2021


Summary:

In an observational study analysing data from over 430,000 patients, those who had their RAASi – blood pressure medications – interrupted or stopped, were found to have worse outcomes than those who continued with their treatment.

The patients who had medication interruptions or discontinuated were more likely to be hospitalised, to have a cardiac arrest or develop kidney damage than those who continued on their RAASi medications throughout the study.

This study highlights that the potential risks for and against RAASi treatment interruption or discontinuation be very carefully considered in patients for whom guideline-recommended RAAS inhibitor therapy is indicated.

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Publication: bioRxiv Preprint

Thomas L. Williams, Maria T. Colzani, Robyn G.C. Macrae, Emma L. Robinson, Stuart Bloor, Edward J. D. Greenwood, Jun Ru Zhan, Gregory Strachan, Rhoda E. Kuc, VDuuamene Nyimanu, View Janet J. Maguire, Paul J. Lehner, Sanjay Sinha, Anthony P. Davenport

21 January 2021


Summary:

Patients with heart disease are more susceptible to severe infection with SARS CoV-2, and the virus is thought to damage cardiovascular tissue. Researchers developed a test to screen medicines that are currently in use for other conditions to see if they would block the entry of the SARS-CoV-2 virus and protect the heart and surrounding tissues.

Researchers found beating heart cells have the same special proteins SARS-CoV-2 virus uses to enter the patient’s tissues and used these cells to model a new system. Safely done in the laboratory, researchers looked at a virus and concentrated on the spike protein so it can infect the cells, but once inside the virus was unable to make copies of itself.

The researchers were then able to test compounds and licenced medicines to block the virus entering the heart cells in order to find a suitable treatment. This new screening gives the opportunity to test a wide range of medicines as well as new anti-viral drugs that are currently being developed.

Doing this and blocking entry of the virus can protect the heart and other tissues during infection. It will also help finding the best medicine to help stop patients getting seriously ill from SARS CoV-2.

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Publication: JAMA

Eric L. Harshfield, Lisa Pennells, Joseph, Schwartz, Peter Willeit, Stephen Kaptoge, Steven Bell, Jonathan A. Shaffer, Thomas Bolton, Sarah Spackman, Sylvia Wassertheil-Smoller, Frank Kee, Philippe Amouyel, Steven J. Shea, Lewis H. Kuller,  Jussi Kauhanen,  E. M. van Zutphen, Dan G. Blazer, Harlan Krumholz, Paul J. Nietert, Daan Kromhout, MD19; Gail Laughlin, Lisa Berkman, Robert B. Wallace, Leon A. Simons, Elaine M. Dennison, Elizabeth L. M. Barr,  Haakon E. Meyer, Angela M. Wood, John Danesh, Emanuele Di Angelantonio, Karina W. Davidson

15 December 2020


Summary

People who experience symptoms of depression are more likely to go on to develop heart disease or suffer a stroke than those who report good mental health.

Researchers analysed the health records of over half a million people, with no prior history of heart and circulatory disease, who were enrolled to two different studies.

Upon joining the studies, participants were given a score based on questionnaires assessing their mood and any symptoms of depression that they had experienced over the previous one to two weeks.

Over 10, researchers have found that those in the highest scoring group, and with most severe symptoms of depression, were more likely to have since developed heart disease or to have had a stroke, compared to people with the lowest scores.

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Publication: Nature Genetics

Praveen Surendran, Joanna M. M. Howson et al

23 November 2020


Increased blood pressure (BP) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and related disability worldwide. Identifying biological pathways associated with blood pressure is important to understand the aetiology of CVD.

In this study involving collaborators from across the globe, and participants from diverse ancestries, researchers investigated whether genetic variants that a small proportion of people carry have an impact on blood pressure regulation and more readily implicate the genes underlying blood pressure regulation.

They identified 87 such genetic variants influencing blood pressure regulation that only a small proportion of people carry. In addition to identifying novel candidate genes associated with blood pressure, they showed a potential link between foetal development and an inverse relationship between systolic and diastolic blood pressure with stroke.

As shown in this study, a complex outcome like blood pressure requires large sample sizes to detect genetic variation associated with blood pressure that are rare in humans; studies to date have mainly looked at genetic variants that are carried by many people and therefore have very small effects on blood pressure regulation.

This study contributes to a significant improvement in researchers’ understanding of key genes controlling a risk factor like BP so they can better understand complex diseases like CVD and help identify new blood pressure therapies.

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Publication: European Respiratory Journal

Anthony W. Martinelli, Tejas Ingle, Joseph Newman, Iftikhar Nadeem, Karl Jackson, Nicholas D. Lane, James Melhorn, Helen E. Davies, Anthony J. Rostron, Aldrin Adeni, Kevin Conroy, Nicholas Woznitza, Matthew Matson, Simon E. Brill, James Murray, Amar Shah, Revati Naran, Samanjit S. Hare, Oliver Collas, Sarah Bigham, Michael Spiro, Margaret M. Huang, Beenish Iqbal, Sarah Trenfield, Stephane Ledot, Sujal Desai, Lewis Standing, Judith Babar, Razeen Mahroof, Ian Smith, Kai Lee, Nairi Tchrakian, Stephanie Uys, William Ricketts, Anant R.C. Patel, Avinash Aujayeb, Maria Kokosi, Alexander J.K. Wilkinson, Stefan J. Marciniak

10 September 2020


Summary

Pneumothorax and pneumomediastinum have both been noted to complicate cases of COVID-19 requiring hospital admission. The research team reported the largest case series yet described of patients with both these pathologies that includes non-ventilated patients.

Cases were collected retrospectively from UK hospitals with inclusion criteria limited to a diagnosis of COVID-19 and the presence of either pneumothorax or pneumomediastinum. Patients included in the study presented between March and June 2020. Details obtained from the medical record included demographics, radiology, laboratory investigations, clinical management and survival.

Seventy-one patients from 16 centres were included in the study, of whom 60 patients had pneumothoraces (six also with pneumomediastinum), whilst 11 patients had pneumomediastinum alone.

Survival at 28 days was not significantly different following pneumothorax or isolated pneumomediastinum. The incidence of pneumothorax was higher in males. The 28-day survival was not different between the sexes. Patients above the age of 70 had a significantly lower 28-day survival than younger individuals.

These cases suggest that pneumothorax is a complication of COVID-19. Pneumothorax does not seem to be an independent marker of poor prognosis and the researchers encourage active treatment to be continued where clinically possible.

Anthony Martinelli and Margaret Huang are supported by the Wellcome Trust. Stefan Marciniak is supported by the Medical Research Council, NIHR Cambridge BRC, Royal Papworth Hospital and the Alpha1-Foundation.

Click to read: Punctured lung affects almost one in a hundred hospitalised COVID-19 patients

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Publication: Nature

Duuamene Nyimanu, Richard G. Kay, Petra Sulentic, Rhoda E. Kuc, Philip Ambery, Lutz Jermutus, Frank Reimann, Fiona M. Gribble, Joseph Cheriyan, Janet J. Maguire, Anthony P. Davenport

27 December 2019

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Summary:

An LC-MS method was developed to measure Apelin in human plasma, and demonstrate apelin dosing achieved the correct concentration in volunteers. The extracts were also analysed on an LC-MS system to identify break-down products of the peptide that were produced in the body. The researchers found out that apelin is broken down from both ends of the peptide, but more so from the C-terminal. This information can be used to develop a better peptide that is stabilised against degradation, therefore improving its characteristics as a drug; and apelin-derived peptides may be potential new drugs for cardiovascular disease.

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Publication: The Lancet Global Health

Stephen Kaptoge, Lisa Pennells, Dirk De Bacquer, Marie Therese Cooney, Maryam Kavousi, Oyere Onuma, Mark Woodward, Goodarz Danaei, Gregory Roth, Shanthi Mendis, Ian Graham, Cherian Varghese, Majid Ezzati, Rod Jackson, John Danesh & Emanuele Di Angelantonio

1 September 2019


Summary:

Cambridge-led researchers have updated World Health Organisation (WHO) cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk prediction charts to aid efforts to reduce the burden of CVD, one of the most common non-communicable diseases world-wide and responsible for an estimated 17.8 million deaths in 2017.

The research was funded by the National Institute for Health Research Cambridge Biomedical Research Centre, WHO, British Heart Foundation (BHF), BHF Cambridge Centre for Research Excellence and UK Medical Research Council.

The revised risk models will help particularly middle- to low-income countries in their efforts to prevent and control CVD. Full story here

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Publication: Nature Biotechnology

Johannes Bargehr, Lay Ping Ong, Maria Colzani, Hongorzul Davaapil, Peter Hofsteen, Shiv Bhandari, Laure Gambardella, Nicolas Le Novère, Dharini Iyer, Fotios Sampaziotis, Florian Weinberger, Alessandro Bertero, Andrea Leonard, William G. Bernard, Amy Martinson, Nichola Figg, Michael Regnier, Martin R. Bennett, Charles E. Murry & Sanjay Sinha

2 August 2019


Summary:

Transplanting an area of damaged tissue with a combination of both heart and muscle cells and supportive cells taken from the outer layer of the heart wall, may be able to help the organs recover from the damage caused by a heart attack. Part funded by the BHF and NIHR and supported by the NIHR Cambridge BRC, researchers have used supportive epicardial cells developed from human stem cells to help transplanted heart cells live longer. Full story here

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Publication: Nature Medicine

Felipe A. Vieira Braga, Gozde Kar, Marijn Berg, Orestes A. Carpaij, Krzysztof Polanski, Lukas M. Simon, Sharon Brouwer, Tomás Gomes, Laura Hesse, Jian Jiang, Eirini S. Fasouli, Mirjana Efremova, Roser Vento-Tormo, Carlos Talavera-López, Marnix R. Jonker, Karen Affleck, Subarna Palit, Paulina M. Strzelecka, Helen V. Firth, Krishnaa T. Mahbubani, Ana Cvejic, Kerstin B. Meyer, Kourosh Saeb-Parsy, Marjan Luinge, Corry-Anke Brandsma, Wim Timens, Ilias Angelidis, Maximilian Strunz, Gerard H. Koppelman, Antoon J. van Oosterhout, Herbert B. Schiller, Fabian J. Theis, Maarten van den Berge, Martijn C. Nawijn, Sarah A. Teichmann

17 June 2019

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Summary:

This research carried out a survey of structural and immune cells in the airways of healthy and asthmatic lungs and identified a novel set of T cells resident in asmatic airways. There is altered communication between immune and structural cells in asthmatic airways and these changes underlie the inflammation in these airways.

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Publication: Neuroimage

Grist JT, McLean MA, Riemer F, Schulte RF, Deen SS, Zaccagna F, et al.

1 April 2019

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Publication: Journal of Hypertension

Li Y, Hickson SS, McEniery CM, Wilkinson IB, Khir AW.

February 2019

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Publication: J Proteome Res

Harshfield EL, Koulman A, Ziemek D, Marney L, Fauman EB, Paul DS, et al.

19 March 2019

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Publication: Nature Genetics

Shrine N, Guyatt AL, Erzurumluoglu AM, Jackson VE, Hobbs BD, Melbourne CA, et al.

25 February 2019

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Publication: Journal of the American College of Cardiology Volume 73, Issue 10, 19 March 2019, Pages 1107-1119

Cartlidge TRG, Doris MK, Sellers SL, Pawade TA, White AC, Pessotto R, Kwiecinski J, Fletcher A, Alcaide C, Lucatelli .

19 March 2019

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Publication: Ultrasound Obstetrics Gynecology

Bijl RC, Valensise H, Novelli GP, Vasapollo B, Wilkinson I, Thilaganathan B, et al.

8 February 2019

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Publication: European Respiratory Journal

Nathan SD, Barbera JA, Gaine SP, Harari, S, Martinez FJ, Olschewski H, Olsson KM, Peacock AJ, Pepke-Zaba J, Provencher S, Weissmann N, Werner Seeger W.

13 December 2018

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Publication: The Lancet

Angela M Wood PhD, P, Stephen Kaptoge, PhD, Adam S Butterworth, PhD, Peter Willeit, MD, Samantha Warnakula, PhD, Thomas Bolton, MMath, Ellie Paige, PhD, Dirk S Paul, PhD, Michael Sweeting, PhD, Stephen Burgess, PhD, Steven Bell, PhD, William Astle, PhD, David Stevens, MSc, Albert Koulman, PhD, Randi M Selmer, PhD, Prof W M Monique Verschuren, PhD, Prof Shinichi Sato, MD, Prof Inger Njølstad, MD, Prof Mark Woodward, PhD, Prof Veikko Salomaa, MD, Prof Børge G Nordestgaard, MD, Prof Bu B Yeap, MBBS, Prof Astrid Fletcher, PhD, Prof Olle Melander, MD, Prof Lewis H Kuller, MD, Beverley Balkau, PhD, Prof Michael Marmot, FMedSci, Prof Wolfgang Koenig, MD, Prof Edoardo Casiglia, MD, Prof Cyrus Cooper, FMedSci, Volker Arndt, MD, Prof Oscar H Franco, MD, Patrik Wennberg, MD, Prof John Gallacher, PhD, Agustín Gómez de la Cámara, MD, Prof Henry Völzke, MD, Christina C Dahm, PhD, Caroline E Dale, PhD, Manuela M Bergmann, PhD, Carlos J Crespo, PhD, Prof Yvonne T van der Schouw, PhD, Prof Rudolf Kaaks, MD, Leon A Simons, MD, Pagona Lagiou, MD, Josje D Schoufour, PhD, Jolanda M A Boer, PhD, Prof Timothy J Key, DPhil, Beatriz Rodriguez, MD, Conchi Moreno-Iribas, PhD, Karina W Davidson, PhD, James O Taylor, MD, Carlotta Sacerdote, PhD, Prof Robert B Wallace, MD, J Ramon Quiros, MD, Prof Rosario Tumino, MD, Dan G Blazer II, MD, Prof Allan Linneberg, MD, Makoto Daimon, MD, Salvatore Panico, MD, Barbara Howard, PhD, Guri Skeie, PhD, Prof Timo Strandberg, MD, Prof Elisabete Weiderpass, PhD, Prof Paul J Nietert, PhD, Prof Bruce M Psaty, MD, Prof Daan Kromhout, PhD, Elena Salamanca-Fernandez, MSc, Prof Stefan Kiechl, MD, Prof Harlan M Krumholz, MD, Sara Grioni, BSc, Domenico Palli, MD, José M Huerta, PhD, Prof Jackie Price, MD, Prof Johan Sundström, MD, Larraitz Arriola, MD, Prof Hisatomi Arima, MD, Ruth C Travis, DPhil, Prof Demosthenes B Panagiotakos, PhD, Anna Karakatsani, MD, Prof Antonia Trichopoulou, MD, Tilman Kühn, PhD, Prof Diederick E Grobbee, MD, Elizabeth Barrett-Connor, MD, Natasja van Schoor, MD, Prof Heiner Boeing, PhD, Prof Kim Overvad, MD, Prof Jussi Kauhanen, MD, Prof Nick Wareham, MD, Claudia Langenberg, MD, Prof Nita Forouhi, PhD, Maria Wennberg, PhD, Prof Jean-Pierre Després, DPhil, Prof Mary Cushman, MD, Jackie A Cooper, MSc, Prof Carlos J Rodriguez, MD, Masaru Sakurai, MD, Jonathan E Shaw, PhD, Prof Matthew Knuiman, PhD, Trudy Voortman, PhD, Prof Christa Meisinger, MD, Anne Tjønneland, MD, Prof Hermann Brenner, MD, Luigi Palmieri, PhD, Jean Dallongeville, MD, Prof Eric J Brunner, PhD, Prof Gerd Assmann, MD, Maurizio Trevisan, MD, Richard F Gillum, MD, Prof Ian Ford, PhD, Prof Naveed Sattar, FMedSci, Mariana Lazo, MD, Prof Simon G Thompson, FMedSci, Pietro Ferrari, PhD, Prof David A Leon, PhD, Prof George Davey Smith, MD, Prof Richard Peto, FRS, Prof Rod Jackson, PhD, Prof Emily Banks, PhD, Emanuele Di Angelantonio, MD, Prof John Danesh

14 April 2018


Summary:

Regularly drinking more than the recommended UK guidelines for alcohol could take years off your life, according to new research from the University of Cambridge. The study shows that drinking more alcohol is associated with a higher risk of stroke, fatal aneurysm, heart failure and death.

The authors say their findings challenge the widely held belief that moderate drinking is beneficial to cardiovascular health, and support the UK’s recently lowered guidelines. The study compared the health and drinking habits of over 600,000 people in 19 countries worldwide and controlled for age, smoking, history of diabetes, level of education and occupation.

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Publication: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

Early F, Wellwood I, Kuhn I, Deaton C, Fuld J.Int

29 October 2018

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Publication: Nature

Sun BB, Maranville JC, Peters JE, Stacey D, Staley JR, Blackshaw J, et al.

6 June 2018

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Publication: Nature Communications

Stefan Gräf, Matthias Haimel, Marta Bleda, Charaka Hadinnapola, Laura Southgate, Wei Li, Joshua Hodgson, Bin Liu, Richard M. Salmon, Mark Southwood, Rajiv D. Machado, Jennifer M. Martin, Carmen M. Treacy, Katherine Yates, Louise C. Daugherty, Olga Shamardina, Deborah Whitehorn, Simon Holden, Micheala Aldred, Harm J. Bogaard, Colin Church, Gerry Coghlan, Robin Condliffe, Paul A. Corris, Cesare Danesino, Mélanie Eyries, Henning Gall, Stefano Ghio, Hossein-Ardeschir Ghofrani, J. Simon R. Gibbs, Barbara Girerd, Arjan C. Houweling, Luke Howard, Marc Humbert, David G. Kiely, Gabor Kovacs, Robert V. MacKenzie Ross, Shahin Moledina, David Montani, Michael Newnham, Andrea Olschewski, Horst Olschewski, Andrew J. Peacock, Joanna Pepke-Zaba, Inga Prokopenko, Christopher J. Rhodes, Laura Scelsi, Werner Seeger, Florent Soubrier, Dan F. Stein, Jay Suntharalingam, Emilia M. Swietlik, Mark R. Toshner, David A. van Heel, Anton Vonk Noordegraaf, Quinten Waisfisz, John Wharton, Stephen J. Wort, Willem H. Ouwehand, Nicole Soranzo, Allan Lawrie, Paul D. Upton, Martin R. Wilkins, Richard C. Trembath & Nicholas W. Morrell

12 April 2018


Summary:

Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (PAH) is a fatal lung disease and causes the walls of the arteries become thick and stiff, narrowing the space for blood to pass through and increasing blood pressure then leading to heart failure.

The disease kills 50% of those affected within five years, but little was known about what caused the condition in some people. Now experts say they have discovered five genes that cause the illness and could pave the way for more treatments.

Scientists carried out the largest ever genetic study of the disease by analysing the genomes – the unique sequence of a person’s DNA – of more than 1,000 PAH patients for whom the cause of the illness was unknown.

They found that mutations in five genes were responsible for causing the illness in these people, including in four genes that were not previously known to be involved in the disease. In people with the condition these genes fail to effectively produce the proteins that are required for the structure, function and regulation of the body’s tissues, researchers found.

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Publication: Nature Reviews Neurology

Evans NR, Tarkin JM, Buscombe JR, Markus HS, Rudd JHF, Warburton EA.

3 April 2018

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Publication: Circ Cardiovasc Imaging

Huang Y, Teng Z, Elkhawad M, Tarkin JM, Joshi N, Boyle JR, Buscombe JR, Fryer TD, Zhang Y, Park AY, Wilkinson IB, Newby DE, Gillard JH, Rudd JH.

November 2016

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Publication: Nat Commun

Irkle A, Vesey AT, Lewis DY, Skepper JN, Bird JL, Dweck MR, Joshi FR, Gallagher FA, Warburton EA, Bennett MR, Brindle KM, Newby DE, Rudd JH, Davenport AP.

7 July 2015

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Publication: Circ Cardiovasc Imaging

Brown AJ, Obaid DR, Costopoulos C, Parker RA, Calvert PA, Teng Z, Hoole SP, West NE, Goddard M, Bennett MR.

8 October 2015

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Publication: Circ Cardiovasc Imaging

Brown AJ, Teng Z, Calvert PA, Rajani NK, Hennessy O, Nerlekar N, Obaid DR, Costopoulos C, Huang Y, Hoole SP, Goddard M, West NE, Gillard JH, Bennett MR.

June 2016

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Publication: Thorax

Loutsios C, Farahi N, Simmonds R, Cullum I, Gillett D, Solanki C, Solanki K, Buscombe J, Condliffe AM, Peters AM, Chilvers ER.

24 June 2015

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Publication: Am J Respir Crit Care Med

Juss JK, House D, Amour A, Begg M, Herre J, Storisteanu DM, Hoenderdos K, Bradley G, Lennon M, Summers C, Hessel EM, Condliffe A, Chilvers ER.

15 October 2016

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Publication: Nat Med.

Long L, Ormiston ML, Yang X, Southwood M, Gräf S, Machado RD, Mueller M, Kinzel B, Yung LM, Wilkinson JM, Moore SD, Drake KM, Aldred MA, Yu PB, Upton PD, Morrell NW.

15 June 2015

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Publication: Lancet Respir Med

Evans JD, Girerd B, Montani D, Wang XJ, Galiè N, Austin ED, Elliott G, Asano K, Grünig E, Yan Y, Jing ZC, Manes A, Palazzini M, Wheeler LA, Nakayama I, Satoh T, Eichstaedt C, Hinderhofer K, Wolf M, Rosenzweig EB, Chung WK, Soubrier F, Simonneau G, Sitbon O, Gräf S, Kaptoge S, Di Angelantonio E, Humbert M, Morrell NW.

19 January 2016

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Publication: Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A

Cowburn AS, Crosby A, Macias D, Branco C, Colaço RD, Southwood M, Toshner M, Crotty Alexander LE, Morrell NW, Chilvers ER, Johnson RS.

18 July 2016

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Publication: Nature Communications

Hurst LA, Dunmore BJ, Long L, Crosby A, Al-Lamki R, Deighton J, Southwood M, Yang X, Nikolic MZ, Herrera B, Inman GJ, Bradley JR, Rana AA, Upton PD, Morrell NW

13 January 2017

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