Publication: Science

Fotios Sampaziotis, Daniele Muraro, Olivia C. Tysoe, Stephen Sawiak, Timothy E. Beach, Edmund M. Godfrey, Sara S. Upponi, Teresa Brevini, Brandon T. Wesley, Jose Garcia-Bernardo, Krishnaa Mahbubani, Giovanni Canu, Richard Gieseck, Natalie L. Berntsen, Victoria L. Mulcahy, Keziah Crick, Corrina Fear, Sharayne Robinson, Lisa Swift, Laure Gambardella, Johannes Bargehr, Daniel Ortmann, Stephanie E. Brown, Anna Osnato, Michael P. Murphy, Gareth Corbett, William T. H. Gelson, George F. Mells, Peter Humphreys, Susan E. Davies, Irum Amin, Paul Gibbs, Sanjay Sinha, Sarah A. Teichmann, Andrew J. Butler, Teik Choon, Espen Melum, Christopher J. E. Watson, Kourosh Saeb-Parsy, Ludovic Vallier

18 February 2021


Researchers in Cambridge have found a way to grow ‘mini bile ducts’ in a lab-setting to repair damaged livers. This new technique could potentially help treat patients whose own livers are not functioning correctly.

Using a recently developed ‘perfusion system’, they were able to transplant biliary cells grown in the lab known as cholangiocytes organoids into damaged human livers to repair them.

This is the first time that a procedure of this kind has been used on human donor organs. It could also increase the number of livers that are considered suitable for organ transplantation and ultimately save more lives.

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Publication: Cell Stem Cell

Jeonghwan Youk, Taewoo Kim, Kelly V.Evans, Young-IlJeong, Yongsuk Hur, Seon Pyo Hong, Je Hyoung Kim, Kijong Yi, Su Yeon Kim, Kwon JoongNa, Thomas Bleazard, Ho Min Kim, Mick Fellows, Krishnaa T. Mahbubani, Kourosh Saeb-Parsy, Seon Young Kim, Young Tae Kim, Gou YoungKoh, Joo-Hyeon Lee

21 October 2020


To better understand how SARS-CoV-2 infects the lungs and causes disease, a team of scientists from the UK and South Korea turned to organoids – ‘mini-organs’ grown in three dimensions to mimic the behaviour of tissue and organs.

The team used tissue donated to tissue banks at the Royal Papworth Hospital NHS Foundation Trust and Addenbrooke’s Hospital, Cambridge University NHS Foundations Trust, UK, and Seoul National University Hospital to extract a type of lung cell known as human lung alveolar type 2 cells. By reprogramming these cells back to their earlier ‘stem cell’ stage, they were able to grow self-organising alveolar-like 3D structures that mimic the behaviour of key lung tissue.

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Publication: Clinical Transplantation

John O. O. Ayorinde, Mazin Hamed, Mingzheng Aaron Goh, Dominic M. Summers, Anna Dare, Yining Chen, Kourosh Saeb‐Parsy

20 January 2020


This research recorded donor and recipient data of kidney transplants and matched them with clinical outcomes, helping to build the Cambridge Kidney Assessment Tool (CKAT).

CKAT will assist surgeons to define macroscopic features of donor kidneys to help them better predict clinical outcome and help reduce unecessary discarding of donor kidneys offered for transplantion.

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Publication: Nature Metabolism

Jack L. Martin, Ana S. H. Costa, Anja V. Gruszczyk, Timothy E. Beach, Fay M. Allen, Hiran A. Prag, Elizabeth C. Hinchy, Krishnaa Mahbubani, Mazin Hamed, Laura Tronci, Efterpi Nikitopoulou, Andrew M. James, Thomas Krieg, Alan J. Robinson, Margaret M. Huang, Stuart T. Caldwell, Angela Logan, Laura Pala, Richard C. Hartley, Christian Frezza, Kourosh Saeb-Parsy, Michael P. Murphy

30 September 2019



During retrieval of kidneys for transplant, there is inevitably a period of time when the organ is without blood flow but still warm (warm ischaemia). A human kidney cannot sustain this for long. During warm ischaemia, a metabolite called succinate builds up. When blood flow is restored, then counter-intuitively, the kidney tissue is damaged with the arrival of oxygenated blood. A drug was tested that ameliorates this damage. This research shows how the function and life span of a transplanted organ can be improved.

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Publication: Nature Medicine

Felipe A. Vieira Braga, Gozde Kar, Marijn Berg, Orestes A. Carpaij, Krzysztof Polanski, Lukas M. Simon, Sharon Brouwer, Tomás Gomes, Laura Hesse, Jian Jiang, Eirini S. Fasouli, Mirjana Efremova, Roser Vento-Tormo, Carlos Talavera-López, Marnix R. Jonker, Karen Affleck, Subarna Palit, Paulina M. Strzelecka, Helen V. Firth, Krishnaa T. Mahbubani, Ana Cvejic, Kerstin B. Meyer, Kourosh Saeb-Parsy, Marjan Luinge, Corry-Anke Brandsma, Wim Timens, Ilias Angelidis, Maximilian Strunz, Gerard H. Koppelman, Antoon J. van Oosterhout, Herbert B. Schiller, Fabian J. Theis, Maarten van den Berge, Martijn C. Nawijn, Sarah A. Teichmann

17 June 2019



This research carried out a survey of structural and immune cells in the airways of healthy and asthmatic lungs and identified a novel set of T cells resident in asmatic airways. There is altered communication between immune and structural cells in asthmatic airways and these changes underlie the inflammation in these airways.

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Publication: Journal of Autoimmunity

M. Saeed Qureshi, Jawaher Alsughayyir, Manu Chhabra, Jason M. Ali, Martin J. Goddard, Christopher A. Devine, Thomas M. Conlon, Michelle A. Linterman, Reza Motallebzadeh, Gavin J.Pettigrew

7 December 2018


The development of humoral autoimmunity following organ transplantation is increasingly recognised, but of uncertain significance. We examine whether autoimmunity contributes independently to allograft rejection.

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Publication: Frontiers in Immunology

Jawaher Alsughayyir, Manu Chhabra, M. Saeed Qureshi, Mekhola Mallik, Jason M. Ali, Ivonne Gamper, Ellen L. Moseley, Sarah Peacock, Vasilis Kosmoliaptsis, Martin J. Goddard, Michelle A. Linterman, Reza Motallebzadeh, Gavin J. Pettigrew

22 January 2019


Humoral alloimmunity is now recognized as a major determinant of transplant outcome. MHC glycoprotein is considered a typical T-dependent antigen, but the nature of the T cell alloresponse that underpins alloantibody generation remains poorly understood. This paper examines how the relative frequencies of alloantigen-specific B cells and helper CD4 T cells influence the humoral alloimmune response and how this relates to antibody-mediated rejection (AMR).

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Publication: Frontiers in Immunology

Manu Chhabra, Jawaher Alsughayyir, M. Saeed Qureshi, Mekhola Mallik, Jason M. Ali, Ivonne Gamper, Ellen L. Moseley, Sarah Peacock, Vasilis Kosmoliaptsis, Martin J. Goddard, Michelle A. Linterman, Reza Motallebzadeh and Gavin J. Pettigrew

23 January 2019


Different profiles of alloantibody responses are observed in the clinic, with those that persist, often despite targeted treatment, associated with poorer long-term transplant outcomes. Although such responses would suggest an underlying germinal center (GC) response, the relationship to cellular events within the allospecific B cell population is unclear. Here we examine the contribution of germinal center (GC) humoral alloimmunity to chronic antibody mediated rejection (AMR)…

This work is composed of two parts, of which this is Part II. Please read also Part I: Alsughayyir et al., 2019.

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Publication: BMJ Open

John OO AyorindeDominic M Summers, Laura Pankhurst, Emma Laing, Alison J Deary, Karla Hemming, Edward CF Wilson, Victoria Bardsley, Desley A Neil, Gavin J Pettigrew

17 January 2019


Most potential kidney transplant donors in the UK are aged over 60 years, yet increasing donor age is associated with poorer graft survival and function. Urgent preimplantation kidney biopsy can identify chronic injury, and may aid selection of better ‘quality’ kidneys from this group. However, the impact of biopsy on transplant numbers remains unproven. The PreImplantation Trial of Histopathology In renal Allografts (PITHIA) study will assess whether the introduction of a national, 24 hours, digital histopathology service increases the number, and improves outcomes, of kidneys transplanted in the UK from older deceased donors.

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Publication: Journal of Hepatology

Rhiannon Taylor, Elisa Allen, James A. Richards, Mingzheng A. Goh, James Neuberger, David Collett, Gavin J. Pettigrew, Liver Advisory Group to NHS Blood and Transplant

11 January 2019


This study looks at patients who require a liver transplant to save their lives; this liver can be donated by a person who has died either after their heart has stopped (donation after cardiac death – DCD) or after the brain has been injured and can no longer support life (donation after brainstem death – DCB). We know that livers donated after brainstem death function better than those after cardiac death, but there are not enough of these livers for everyone, so we wished to help patients decide whether it was better for them to accept an early offer of a DCD liver than waiting longer to receive a “better” liver from a DBD donor. We found that patients were more likely to survive if they accepted the offer of a liver transplant as soon as possible (DCD or DBD), especially if their liver disease was very severe.

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Publication: The Lancet

Gemma D Banham, MRCP(UK), Shaun M Flint, FRACP,  Nicholas Torpey, FRCP, Paul A Lyons, PhD, Don N Shanahan, MSc, Adele Gibson, BSc, Prof Christopher J E Watson, FRCS, Ann-Marie O’Sullivan, MRes, Joseph A Chadwick, Katie E Foster, PhD, Rachel B Jones, FRCP, Luke R Devey, MRCSEd, Anna Richards, MRCP(UK), Prof Lars-Peter Erwig, MD, Prof Caroline O Savage,FMedSci, Prof Kenneth G C Smith, FMedSci, Robert B Henderson, PhD, Menna R Clatworthy, FRCP†

14 June 2018


Transplantation is the best form of treatment for most patients with end-stage renal failure, but long-term graft survival is limited by the development of antibodies against the graft. There is therefore a major unmet need to find immunosuppressants that target humoral alloimmunity.

Researchers investigated the use of Belimumab, a monoclonal antibody that binds the B cell pro-survival cytokine BAFF, in kidney transplant recipients.

The study found that the use of belimumab was not associated with any excess risk of infection, and led to a reduction in antibody-producing plasmablasts, activated memory B cells, new IgG antibody formation and in non-HLA IgG antibodies associated with poor graft outcomes. Remarkably, belimumab treatment spared regulatory B cells – a cell type associated with transplant tolerance, with an increase in IL10-producing B cells observed.

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Publication: Annals

Linda M. O’Keeffe, PhD; Anna Ramond, DPharm; Clare Oliver-Williams, PhD; Peter Willeit, MD; Ellie Paige, PhD; Patrick Trotter, MBChB; Jonathan Evans, MBChB; Jonas Wadström, MD; Michael Nicholson, MD; Dave Collett, PhD; Emanuele Di Angelantonio, MD

30 January 2018


Living kidney donors are not at increased risk for some health outcomes previously of concern, but do seem at risk for worse blood pressure and kidney function than nondonors. In addition, female donors seem to be at increased risk for preeclampsia.

A team lead by researchers reviewed 52 published studies comprising more than 100,000 living kidney donors and more than 110,000 nondonors to assess the mid- and long-term health risks associated with living kidney donation in adults.

The data showed that kidney donors had higher diastolic blood pressure, poorer renal function, and higher risk for ESRD than nondonors. Female donors had an almost two-fold higher risk than nondonors for pregnancy-related complications, such as preeclampsia.

There was no evidence that living kidney donors had higher risk for mortality, cardiovascular disease, or type 2 diabetes, or reduced quality of life.

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Publication: American Journal of Transplantation

Ines G. Harper, Olivera Gjorgjimajkoska, Jacqueline H. Y. Siu, Jasvir Parmar, Arend Mulder, Frans H. J. Claas, Sarah A. Hosgood, Michael L. Nicholson, Reza Motallebzadeh, Gavin J. Pettigrew

12 December 2018


Tissue resident lymphocytes are present within many organs, and are presumably transferred at transplantation, but their impact on host immunity is unclear. Here, we examine whether transferred donor natural regulatory CD4 T cells (nT‐regs) inhibit host alloimmunity and prolong allograft survival.

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Publication: Frontiers in Immunology

Jacqueline H. Y. Siu, Veena Surendrakumar, James A. Richards and Gavin J. Pettigrew

5 November 2018


Transplantation is unusual in that T cells can recognize alloantigen by at least two distinct pathways: as intact MHC alloantigen on the surface of donor cells via the direct pathway; and as self-restricted processed alloantigen via the indirect pathway. Direct pathway responses are viewed as strong but short-lived and hence responsible for acute rejection, whereas indirect pathway responses are typically thought to be much longer lasting and mediate the progression of chronic rejection. However, this is based on surprisingly scant experimental evidence, and the recent demonstration that MHC alloantigen can be re-presented intact on recipient dendritic cells—the semi-direct pathway—suggests that the conventional view may be an oversimplification.

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Publication: Biomaterials

Ng SS, Saeb-Parsy K, Blackford SJI, Segal JM, Serra MP, Horcas-Lopez M, No DY, Mastoridis S, Jassem W, Frank CW, Cho NJ, Nakauchi H, Glenn JS, Rashid ST. Biomaterials.

November 2018

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Publication: Scientific Reports

Wang J, Ferreira R, Lu W, Farrow S, Downes K, Jermutus L, et al.

13 August 2018

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Publication: Pediatric Nephrology

Martin JL, Gruszczyk AV, Beach TE, Murphy MP, Saeb-Parsy K.

2 June 2018

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Publication: Journal of the American Heart Association

Kohlhauer M, Dawkins S, Costa ASH, Lee R, Young T, Pell VR, Choudhury RP, Banning AP, Kharbanda RK; Oxford Acute Myocardial Infarction (OxAMI) Study, Saeb-Parsy K, Murphy MP, Frezza C, Krieg T, Channon KM.

6 April 2018

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Publication: Nature

Norah M. E. Fogarty, Afshan McCarthy, Kirsten E. Snijders, Benjamin E. Powell, Nada Kubikova, Paul Blakeley, Rebecca Lea, Kay Elder, Sissy E. Wamaitha, Daesik Kim, Valdone Maciulyte, Jens Kleinjung, Jin-Soo Kim, Dagan Wells, Ludovic Vallier, Alessandro Bertero10, James M. A. Turner & Kathy K. Niakan

20 September 2017

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Publication: Diabetes Obes Metab

El-Khairi R, Vallier L.

12 September 2016

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Publication: Am J Transplant

Watson CJ, Kosmoliaptsis V, Randle LV, Russell NK, Griffiths WJ, Davies S, Mergental H, Butler AJ.

22 September 2015

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Publication: J Heart Lung Transplant

Dijke EI, Platt JL, Blair P, Clatworthy MR, Patel JK, Kfoury AG, Cascalho M. B .

12 February 2016

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Publication: Cell Reports

Harper IG, Ali JM, Harper SJ, Wlodek E, Alsughayyir J, Negus MC, Qureshi MS, Motalleb-Zadeh R, Saeb-Parsy K, Bolton EM, Bradley JA, Clatworthy MR, Conlon TM, Pettigrew GJ.

28 April 2016

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Publication: Curr Transplant Rep

Castro-Dopico T and Clatworthy MR.

3 October 2016

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Publication: Transpl Int

Amin I, Butler AJ, Defries G, Russell NK, Harper SJ, Jah A, Saeb-Parsy K, Pettigrew GJ, Watson CJ.

21 January 2017

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Publication: Clin Transplant

Mah TJ, Mallon DH, Brewster O, Saeb-Parsy K, Butler AJ, Bradley JA, Kosmoliaptsis V.

23 January 2017

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Mirshekar-Syahkal B, Summers D, Bradbury LL, Aly M, Bardsley V, Berry M, Norris JM, Torpey N, Clatworthy MR, Bradley JA, Pettigrew GJ

18 July 2016

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