Publications

The latest list of publications from the NIHR Cambridge Biomedical Research Centre with a brief summary. 

If you are publishing research which has had funding and / or support from the NIHR Cambridge Biomedical Research Centre, please complete this form

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Publication: The Lancet

Treweek S, Forouhi N, Narayan K, Khunti K.

12 June 2020


Summary

The toll of COVID-19 is not equal. Evidence globally shows a greater COVID-19 burden with older age, male sex, obesity, comorbidities, and poverty.

Early data suggest that people from Black, Asian, and minority ethnic (BAME) groups in the UK and Black, Hispanic, and Native American groups in the USA are disproportionately at risk of severe COVID-19 complications and deaths. A recent systematic review of published, preprint, and grey literature concluded that BAME communities are at increased risk of infection from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 and have more adverse outcomes, including death.

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Publication: European Journal of Human Genetics

Senftleber N, Jørgensen M, Jørsboe E, Imamura F, Forouhi N, Larsen C et al.

19 June 2020


Summary

Several recent studies have found signs of recent selection on the carnitine palmitoyl-transferase 1A (CPT1A) gene in the ancestors of Arctic populations likely as a result of their traditional diet.  Researchers aimed to assess which fatty acids may have driven the selection of rs80356779, a c.1436C>T (p.(Pro479Leu)) variant in CPT1A, by analysing a potential interaction between the variant and traditional diet.

 

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Publication: PLOS Medicine

Atabaki-Pasdar N, Ohlsson M, Viñuela A, Frau F, Pomares-Millan H, Haid M et al.

19 June 2020


Summary

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is highly prevalent and causes serious health complications in individuals with and without type 2 diabetes (T2D). Early diagnosis of NAFLD is important, as this can help prevent irreversible damage to the liver and, ultimately, hepatocellular carcinomas. Researchers sought to expand etiological understanding and develop a diagnostic tool for NAFLD using machine learning.

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Publication: The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

Sieri S, Agnoli C, Grioni S, Weiderpass E, Mattiello A, Sluijs I et al.

03 July 2020


Summary

High carbohydrate intake raises blood triglycerides, glucose, and insulin; reduces HDLs; and may increase risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Epidemiological studies indicate that high dietary glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) are associated with increased CHD risk. The aim of this study was to determine whether dietary GI, GL, and available carbohydrates are associated with CHD risk in both sexes.

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Publication: PLOS Medicine

Imamura F, Fretts A, Marklund M, Ardisson Korat A, Yang W, Lankinen M et al.

12 June 2020


Summary

De novo lipogenesis (DNL) is the primary metabolic pathway synthesizing fatty acids from carbohydrates, protein, or alcohol. Researchers examined associations of in vivo levels of selected fatty acids in DNL with incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D).

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Publication: Nutrients

Laura C. Kusinski, Helen R. Murphy, Emanuella De Lucia Rolfe, Kirsten L. Rennie, Linda M. Oude Griep, Deborah Hughes, Roy Taylor, Claire L. Meek
22 April 2020


Summary
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) annually affects 35,000 pregnancies in the United Kingdom, causing suboptimal health outcomes to the mother and child. Obesity and excessive gestational weight gain are risk factors for GDM
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Publication: European Journal of Nutrition

Eloranta A, Sallinen T, Viitasalo A, Lintu N, Väistö J, Jalkanen H et al.

4 May 2020


Summary

Researchers studied the effects of a physical activity and dietary intervention on plasma lipids in a general population of children. Researchers also investigated how lifestyle changes contributed to the intervention effects.

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Publication: European Journal of Nutrition

Eleanor M. Winpenny, Esther M. F. van Sluijs, Nita G. Forouhi

13 May 2020


Summary

Poor diet quality is one of the key contributors to poor cardiovascular health and associated morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to assess how the short-term associations between diet quality and metabolic risk factors change with age.

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Publication: Clinical Nutrition

Ghadeer S. Aljuraiban,Kamalita Pertiwi, Jeremiah Stamler, Queenie Chan, Johanna M. Geleijnse, Linda Van Horn, Martha L. Daviglus, Paul Elliott, Linda M. Oude Griep

22 January 2020


Summary

Previous studies have reported associations between higher potato intake and higher blood pressure (BP) and/or risk of hypertension and obesity. These studies rarely considered preparation methods of potatoes, overall dietary pattern or the nutrient quality of the meals. These factors may affect the association of potato intake with BP and body mass index (BMI). This study investigated potato consumption by amount, type of processing, overall dietary pattern, and nutrient quality of the meals in relation to BP and BMI.

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Publication: Clinical Biochemistry

Paquette M, Gauthier D, Chamberland A, Prat A, De Lucia Rolfe E, Rasmussen J et al.

March 2020


Summary

The objective of this study is to investigate the association between circulating PCSK9 levels and the presence of hepatic steatosis, as well as with liver biomarkers in a cohort of healthy individuals.

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Publication: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity

Matthew Pearce, Tessa Strain, Youngwon Kim, Stephen J. Sharp, Kate Westgate, Katrien Wijndaele, Tomas Gonzales, Nicholas J. Wareham & Søren Brage

16 March 2020


Summary

Higher levels of physical activity have been shown to be associated with a lower risk of morbidity and mortality, but accurately assessing the dose of physical activity in large population studies remains challenging The baseline questionnaire includes items adapted from the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) [6] and the Recent Physical Activity Questionnaire (RPAQ).

 

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Publication: Nutrients

Birdem Amoutzopoulos, Toni Steer, Caireen Roberts, David Collins, Polly Page

1 February 2020


Summary

Monitoring dietary intake of sugars in the population’s diet has great importance in evaluating the efficiency of national sugar reduction programmes. The study objective was to provide a comprehensive assessment of dietary sources of added and free sugars to assess adherence to public health recommendations in the UK population and to consider the impact of different sugar definitions on monitoring.

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Publication: European Heart Journal

SCORE2 working group and ESC Cardiovascular risk collaboration

13 June 2021


Summary

The researchers analysed data from nearly 700,000 mainly middle-aged participants in 45 large-scale studies to develop risk prediction models (SCORE2) tailored for use in European countries.

The participants did not have previous history of CVD at the outset and 30,000 had a CVD event (heart attack or stroke) during the first 10 years of follow up.

These risk models were then statistically adapted or ‘recalibrated’ to more accurately estimate CVD risk for contemporary populations in four European risk regions, using data on population-specific CVD incidence rates and risk factor values from 10.8 million individuals. Read the full story

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Publication: BMJ Open

Ioannis Bakolis Robert Stewart,David Baldwin, Jane Beenstock, Paul Bibby, Matthew Broadbent, Rudolf CardinalShanquan Chen, Karthik Chinnasamy, Andrea Cipriani, Simon Douglas, Philip Horner, Caroline A Jackson, Ann John, Dan W Joyce, Sze Chim Lee, Jonathan Lewis, Andrew McIntosh, Neil Nixon, David Osborn, Peter Phiri, Shanaya Rathod, Tanya Smith, Rachel Sokal, Rob Waller, Sabine Landau

26 May 21


Summary

To investigate changes in daily mental health (MH) service use and mortality in response to the introduction and the lifting of the COVID-19 ‘lockdown’ policy in Spring 2020. Data was reviewed looking at lockdown policy, changes and admissions, with findings of sizeable changes during the first national lockdown, but still unclear what the effect is.

 

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Publication: Sage Journals

Maria Herrero-Zazo, Rachel BerryEmma Bines, Debi BhattacharyaPhyo K. MyintVictoria L. Keevil

6 May 2021


Summary

Researchers describe how commonly medicines which block the chemical acetylcholine are prescribed to older adults admitted to hospital as an emergency and explore links between these medicines and death during or soon after hospital admission. Researchers use data collected as part of routine medical care at one university hospital to describe how often these medicines are prescribed in a large sample of older adults admitted to hospital as an emergency. They looked at the medicines patients are prescribed on admission to the hospital and also when they are later discharged.

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Publication: Diabetes Care

Frank Qian  Andres V. Ardisson Korat  Fumiaki Imamura, Matti Marklund, Nathan Tintle, Jyrki K. Virtanen,  Xia Zhou, Julie K. Bassett,  Heidi Lai, Yoichiro Hirakawa, Kuo-Liong Chien, Alexis C. Wood, Maria Lankinen, Rachel A. Murphy, Cecilia Samieri, Kamalita Pertiwi, Vanessa D. de Mello, Weihua Guan, Nita G. Forouhi, Nick Wareham, Frank B. Hu, Ulf Riserus, Lars Lind, William S. Harris, Aladdin H. Shadyab, Jennifer G. Robinson, Lyn M. Steffen, Allison Hodge, Graham G. Giles, Toshiharu Ninomiya, Matti Uusitupa, Jaakko Tuomilehto, Jaana Lindström, Markku Laakso, David S. Siscovick, Catherine Helmer, Johanna M. Geleijnse, Jason H.Y. Wu, Amanda Fretts, Rozenn N. Lemaitre, Renata Micha , Dariush Mozaffarian and Qi Sun

May 2021


Summary

Prospective associations between n-3 fatty acid biomarkers and type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk are not consistent in individual studies. We aimed to summarize the prospective associations of biomarkers of α-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) with T2D risk through an individual participant-level pooled analysis.

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Publication: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise

Winters-van Eekelen, Esther van der Velde, Jeroen H.P.M. Boone, Sebastiaan C.; Westgate, Kate; Brage, Søren, Lamb, Hildo J, Rosendaal, Frits R. de Mutsert, Renée1

28 May 2021


Summary

It remains unclear to what extent habitual physical activity and sedentary time are associated with visceral fat and liver fat.

Researchers studied substitution of sedentary time with time spent physically active and total body fat (TBF), visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and hepatic triglyceride content (HTGC) in middle-aged men and women.

Reallocation of time spent sedentary with time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, but not light physical activity, was associated with less total body fat, and visceral and liver fat. These findings contribute to the development of more specified guidelines on sedentary time and physical activity.

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Publication: Nature Medicine

Kaitlin H. Wade, Brian Y. H. Lam, Audrey Melvin, Warren Pan, Laura J. Corbin, David A. Hughes, Kara Rainbow, Jian-Hua Chen, Katie Duckett, Xiaoming Liu, Jacek Mokrosiński, Alexander Mörseburg, Sam Neaves, Alice Williamson, Chen Zhang, I. Sadaf Farooqi, Giles S. H. Yeo, Nicholas J. Timpson & Stephen O’Rahilly 

27 May 2021


Summary

Could a gene be the key why some of us carry extra fat? New research has found that one in every 340 people might carry a mutation in a single gene that makes them more likely to have a greater weight from early childhood and, by 18 years of age, they could be up to 30 pounds heavier with the excess weight likely to be mostly fat. Read the full story

 

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Publication: Nature Cancer

Xueqing Zou, Gene Ching Chiek Koh, Arjun Scott Nanda, Andrea Degasperi, Katie Urgo, Theodoros I. Roumeliotis, Chukwuma A. Agu, Cherif Badja, Sophie Momen, Jamie Young, Tauanne Dias Amarante, Lucy Side, Glen Brice, Vanesa Perez-Alonso, Daniel Rueda, Celine Gomez, Wendy Bushell, Rebecca Harris, Jyoti S. Choudhary, Genomics England Research Consortium, Josef Jiricny, William C. Skarnes & Serena Nik-Zainal

26 April 2021


Summary

A new way to identify tumours that could be sensitive to particular immunotherapies has been developed using data from thousands of NHS cancer patient samples sequenced through the 100,000 Genomes Project.  The MMRDetect clinical algorithm makes it possible to identify tumours that have ‘mismatch repair deficiencies’ and then improve the personalisation of cancer therapies to exploit those weaknesses.

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Publication: Nature Communications

Sungsam Gong, Francesca Gaccioli, Justyna Dopierala, Ulla Sovio, Emma Cook, Pieter-Jan Volders, Lennart Martens, Paul D. W. Kirk, Sylvia Richardson, Gordon C. S. Smith & D. Stephen Charnock-Jones 

11 May 2021


Summary

The placenta is understudied and is commonly omitted from large-scale “-omic” analyses, this study enables tissue-wide comparison of transcriptome analyses, looking at identification placentally-related adverse pregnancy outcomes such as fetal growth restriction (FGR) and preeclimisia (PE).

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